Center for Conservation Biology


Jessica K Lundin, G Ylitalo, R Booth, B Anulacion,J Hempelmann, K Parsons,D Giles, E Seely, B Hanson, C Emmons, and S Wasser. Modulation in Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentration and Profile by Prey Availability and Reproductive Status in Southern Resident Killer Whale Scat Samples. Environmental Science and Technology. June, 2016.

Samuel K Wasser, L Brown, C Mailand, S Mondo, W Clark, C Laurie, BS Weir. 2015.Genetic assignment of large ivory seizures of elephant ivory reveals Africa’s major poaching hotspots. Science Express. July 3rd, 2015.

Jessica Lundin, R Dills, GM Ylitalo, M Bradley Hanson, CK Emmoms, G Schorr, J Ahmad, JA Hempelmann, KM Parsons, SK Wasser. 2015. Persistent Organic Pollutant Determination in Killer Whale Scat Samples: Optimization of a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Method and Application to Field Samples. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Published 23 Aug 2015 Online.

Jessica Lundin, J Riffell, Samuel K Wasser. 2015. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in caribou, moose, and wolf scat samples from three areas of the Alberta oil sands. Environmental Pollution. 206 (2015) 527e534.

Samuel K Wasser, Lisa S. Hayward, Jennifer Hartman, Rebecca K. Booth, Kristin Broms, Jodi Berg, Elizabeth Seely, Lyle Lewis, Heath Smith. 2012. Using Detection Dogs to Conduct Simultaneous Surveys of Northern Spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina) and Barred Owls (Strix varia). PLoS ONE 7(8): e42892.

Katherine L. Ayres, Rebecca K. Booth, Jennifer A. Hempelmann, Kari L. Koski, Candice K. Emmons, Robin W. Baird, Kelley Balcomb-Bartok, M. Bradley Hanson, Michael J. Ford, Samuel K. Wasser. 2012. Distinguishing the Impacts of Inadequate Prey and Vessel Traffic on an Endangered Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Population. PLoS ONE 7(6): e36842.

Rosalind M. Rolland, SE Parks, KE Hunt, M Castellote, PJ Corkeron, DP Nowacek, SK Wasser and SD Kraus. 2011. Evidence that ship noise increases stress in right whales. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences.

SK Wasser, JL Keim, ML Taper, SR Lele. 2011. The influences of wolf predation, habitat loss, and human activity on caribou and moose in the Alberta oil sands. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.

NT Ashley, PS Barboza, BJ Macbeth, DM Janz, MRL Cattet, RK Booth, SK Wasser. 2011. Glucocoticosteroid concentrations in feces and hair of captive caribou and reindeer following adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge. General and Comparative Endocrinology 172: 382-391.

LS Hayward, AE Bowles, JC Ha, SK Wasser. 2011. Impacts of acute and long-term vehicle exposure on physiology and reproductive success of the northern spotted owl. Ecosphere 2(6): 1-20.

C Vynne, J Keim, R Machado, J Marinho-Filho, L Silveira, M Groom, SK Wasser. 2011 Resource Selection and Its Implications for Wide-Ranging Mammals of the Brazilian Cerrado. PLoS One 6(12): e28939.

SK Wasser, JC Azkarate, RK Booth, L Hayward, K Hunt, K Ayers, C Vynne, K Gobush, D Canales-Espinosa, E Rodriguez-Luna. 2010. Non-invasive measurement of thyroid hormone in feces of a diverse array of avian and mammalian species. General and Comparative Endocrinology 168(1): 1-7.

LS Hayward, RK Booth, SK Wasser. 2010. Eliminating the artificial effect of sample mass on avian fecal hormone metabolite concentration. General and Comparative Endocrinology 169: 117-122.

MB Hanson, RW Baird, JKB Ford, J Hempelmann-Halos, DM Van Doornik, JR Candy, CK Emmons, GS Schorr, B Gisborne, KL Ayers, SK Wasser, KC Balcomb, K Balcomb-Bartok, JG Sneva, MJ Ford. 2010. Species and stock identification of prey consumed by endangered southern resident killer whales in their summer range. Endangered Species Research 11: 69-82.

C Vynne, JR Skalski, RB Machado, MJ Groom, ATA Jacomo, J Marinho-Filho, MB Ramos Neto, C Pomilla, L Silveira, H Smith, SK Wasser. 2010. Effectiveness of scat-detection dogs in determining species presence in a tropical savanna landscape. Conservation Biology 25(1): 154-162.

SK Wasser, K Nowak, J Poole, J Hart, R Beyers, P Lee, K Lindsay, G Brown, P Granli, A Dobson. 2010. Response — Consequences of Legal Ivory Trade. Science 328: 1633-1635.

SK Wasser, J Poole, P Lee, K Lindsay, A Dobson, J Hart, I Douglas-Hamilton, G Wittemeyer, P Granli, B Morgan, J Gunn, S Alberts, R Beyers, P Chiyo, H Croze, R Estes, K Gobush, P Joram, A Kikoti, J Kingdon, L King, D Macdonald, C Moss, B Mutayoba, S Njumbi, P Omondi, K Nowak. 2010. Elephants, Ivory, and Trade. Science 327: 1331-1332.

SK Wasser, B Clark, C Laurie. 2009. The Ivory Trail. Scientific American: 68-76.

C Vynne and JM Kinsella. 2009. First record of entodiniomorph ciliates in a carnivore, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from Brazil. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 40(2): 382-384.

KS Gobush and SK Wasser. 2009. Behavioural correlates of low relatedness in African elephant core groups of a poached population. Animal Behaviour 78: 1079-1086.

SK Wasser, H Smith, L Madden, N Marks, C Vynne. 2009. Scent Matching Dogs Determine Number of Unique Individuals from Scat. Journal of Wildlife Management 73(7): 1233-1240.

KS Gobush, B Kerr, SK Wasser. 2009. Genetic Relatedness and Disrupted Social Structure in a Poached Population of African Elephants. Molecular Ecology 18: 722-734.

KS Gobush, BM Mutayoba, SK Wasser. 2008. Long-Term Impacts of Poaching on Relatedness, Stress Physiology, and Reproductive Output of Adult Female African Elephants. Conservation Biology 22: 1590-1599.

SK Wasser. 2008. Lucky dogs: Dogs sniff out scat from endangered animals, trumping more technical tracking methods. Natural History, October, pp.48-53.

SK Wasser, WJ Clark, O Drori, ES Kisamo, C Mailand, B Mutayoba, M Stephens. 2008. Combating the illegal trade in African elephant ivory with DNA forensics. Conservation Biology 22: 1065-1071.

C. Mailand, SK. Wasser. 2007. Isolation of DNA from small amounts of elephant ivory. Nature Protocols 2: 2228-2232.

S Wasser, C Mailand, R Booth, B Mutayoba, E Kisamo, B Clark, M Stevens. 2007. Using DNA to track the origin of the largest ivory seizure since the 1989 trade ban. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences 104: 4228-4233.

R Rolland, P Hamilton, S Kraus, B Davenport, R Gillett, S Wasser. 2006. Faecal sampling using detection dogs to study reproduction and health in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 8(2):121-125.

A Malisa, P Gwakisa, S Balthazary, S Wasser, B Mutayoba. 2006. The potential of mitochondrial DNA markers and polymerase chain-reaction fragment length polymorphism for domestic and wild species identification. African Journal of Biotechnology 5: 1588-1593.

KE Hunt, RM Rolland, SD Kraus, SK Wasser. 2006. Analysis of fecal glucocortocoids in the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis). General and Comparative Endocrinology 148: 260-272.

A Malisa, P Gwakisa, S Balthazary, S Wasser, B Mutayoba. 2005. Species and gender differentiation among domestic and wild animals using mitochondrial and sex-linked DNA markers. African Journal of Biotechnology 4: 1269-1274.

H Hesterman, SK Wasser, JF Cockrem. 2005. Longitudinal monitoring of fecal testosterone in male Malayan sun bears (Ursus malaynus). Zoo Biology 24: 403-417.

SK Wasser, KE Hunt. 2005. Noninvasive measures of reproductive function and disturbance in the barred owl, great horned owl, and northern spotted owl. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1046: 109-137.

RM Rolland, KE Hunt, SD Kraus, SK Wasser. 2005. Assessing reproductive status of right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) using fecal hormone metabolites. General and Comparative Endocrinology 142: 308-317.

SK Wasser, A. Shedlock, K. Comstock, E. Ostrander, B. Mutayoba, M. Stephens. 2004. Assigning African elephant DNA to geographic region of origin. Applications to the ivory trade. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences 101: 14847-14852.

S Kleindorfer, SK Wasser. 2004. Infant handling and mortality in yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus): evidence for female reproductive competition? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 56: 328-337.

SK Wasser, GW Norton, S Kleindorfer, RJ Rhine. 2004. Population trend alters the effects of maternal dominance rank on lifetime reproductive success in yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 56: 338-345.

SK Wasser, B. Davenport, ER Ramage, KE Hunt, M Parker, C Clarke, G Stenhouse. 2004. Scat detection dogs in wildlife research and management: Applications to grizzly and black bears in the Yellowhead Ecosystem, Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82: 475-492.

CG van der Ohe, SK Wasser, K. Hunt, C Servheen. 2004. Factors Associated With Fecal Glucocorticoids In Alaskan Brown Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology (in press).

KE Hunt, A Trites, SK Wasser. 2004. Validation of a fecal glucocorticoid assay for Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Physiology and Behavior 80: 595-601.

KE Hunt, SK Wasser. 2003. Effect of long-term preservation methods on fecal glucocorticoid concentrations of grizzly bear and African elephant. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 76: 918-928.

S Larson, CJ Casson, SK Wasser. 2003. Noninvasive reproductive steroid hormone estimates from fecal samples of captive female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). General and Comparative Endocrinology 134: 18-25.

KE Comstock, EA Ostrander, SK Wasser. 2003. Amplifying nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from African Elephant Ivory: A tool for monitoring the ivory trade. Conservation Biology 17: 1-4.

KE Comstock, N Georgiadis, J Pecon-Slattery, AL Rocca, SJ O’Brien, SK Wasser. 2002. Patterns of molecular genetic variation among African elephant populations. Molecular Ecology 11:2489-2498.

MA Murphy, LP Waits, KC Kendall, SK Wasser, JA Higbee, R Bogden. 2002. An evaluation of long-term preservation methods for brown bear (Ursus arctos) faecal DNA samples. Conservation Genetics 3: 435-440.

SK Wasser, KE Hunt, CM Clarke. 2002. Assessing stress and population genetics through non-invasive means. In: Aguire, AA., RS Ostfeld, GM Taber, C House, MC Pearl (eds.) Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health in Practice. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp 130-144.

JJ Millspaugh, RJ Woods, KE Hunt, KJ Raedeke, GC Brundige, BE Washburn, SK Wasser. 2001. Fecal glucocorticoid assays and the physiological stress response in elk. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29: 899-907.

SK Wasser and N. Place. 2001. Reproductive filtering and the social environment. In: Ellison, P. (ed.)Reproductive ecology and human evolution, Aldine DE Gruyter, Hawthorne, NY, pp. 137-158.

CM Clarke, DA Immell, SK Wasser 2001. Technical considerations for hair genotyping methods in black bears. Western Black Bear Workshop 7: 24-29.

CM Clarke, JA Fangman, SK Wasser. 2001. Fecal DNA methods for differentiating grizzly bears from black bears. Ursus 12: 237-240.

CAH Foley, S Papageorge, SK Wasser. 2001. Non-invasive stress and reproductive measures of social and ecological pressures in free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Conservation Biology 15: 1134-1142.

SK Wasser, KE Hunt, JL Brown, K Cooper, CM Crockett, U Bechert, JJ Millspaugh, S Larson, SL Monfort. 2000. A generalized fecal glucocorticoid assay for use in a diverse array of non-domestic mammalian and avian species. General and Comparative Endocrinology 120: 260-275.

KE Comstock, SK Wasser, EA Ostrander. 2000. Polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci identified in the African elephant (Loxodona africana). Molecualr Ecology 9: 993-1011.

RJ Rhine, G Norton, SK Wasser. 2000. Lifetime reproductive success, longevity, and reproductive life history of yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) of Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. American Journal of Primatology 51: 229-241.

U.S. Bechert, L. Swanson, SK Wasser, D.L. Hess, F. Strormshak. 1999. Serum prolactin concentrations in the captive female African elephant (Loxodonta africana): Potential effects of season and steroid hormone interactions. General and Comparative Endocrinology 114: 269-278.

SK Wasser. 1999. Stress and Reproductive Failure: An Evolutionary Approach with Applications to Premature Labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 180: S272-274.

S.K. Wasser, G.W. Norton, R.J. Rhine, S. Kleindorfer. 1998. Ageing and Social Rank Effects on the Reproductive System of Free-Ranging Yellow Baboons (Papio cynocephalus) at Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. Human Reproduction Update 4: 430-438.

A.L. Velloso, S.K. Wasser, S.L. Monfort, J.M. Dietz. 1998. Longitudinal fecal steroid excretion in the maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). General and Comparative Endocrinology 112: 96-107.

R.J. Rhine, G.W. Norton, D.M Hawkins, S.K. Wasser. 1998. Validity of an estimator of reproductive success. American Journal of Primatology 44: 137-146.

S.L. Monfort, S.K. Wasser, K.L. Mashburn, M. Burke, B.A. Brewer, S.R. Creel. 1997. Steroid metabolism and validation of noninvasive endocrine monitoring in the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Zoo Biology 6: 533-548.

J.L. Brown, S.K. Wasser, D.E. Wildt, L.H. Graham, S.L. Monfort. 1997. Faecal steroid analysis for monitoring ovarian and testicular function in diverse wild carnivore, primate and ungulate species. Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde 62 Supplement 2: 27-31.

S.K. Wasser, C.S. Houston, G.M. Koehler, G.G. Cadd, S.R. Fain. 1997. Techniques for application of fecal DNA studies of Ursids. Molecular Ecology 6: 1091-1097.

Y.K. Kim, S.K. Wasser, V.Y. Fujimoto, N.A. Klein, D.E. Moore, M.R. Soules. 1997. Utility of FSH, LH, estradiol and FSH:LH ratio in predicting reproductive age in normal women. Human Reproduction 12: 1152-1155.

S.K. Wasser, K. Bevis, G. King, E. Hanson. 1997. Noninvasive physiological measures of disturbance in the Northern Spotted Owl. Conservation Biology 11: 1019-1022.

J.A.Long, S.E. Larson and S.K. Wasser. 1996. Safeguarding diversity: Challenges in developing a genome resource bank for California sea otters. Endangered Species Update 13: 57-60.

J.L. Brown, S.K. Wasser, D.E. Wildt. L.H. Graham, S.L. Monfort. 1996. Fecal steroid analysis for monitoring ovarian and testicular function in wild carnivore, primate and ungulate species. Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Physiologie and Ethology of Wild and Zoo Animals. Berlin, Germany, pp. 27-31.

S.K. Wasser 1996. Reproductive control in wild baboons measured by fecal steroids. Biology of Reproduction 55: 393-399.

S.K. Wasser, S. Papageorge, C. Foley, J.L. Brown. 1996. Excretory fate of estradiol and progesterone in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and patterns of fecal steroid concentrations throughout the estrous cycle. General and Comparative Endocrinology 102: 255-262.

J.O. Joslin, W.D. Weissman, K. Johnson, M. Foster, S.K. Wasser and D. Collins. 1995. In-vitro fertilization of Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) gametes followed by embryo transfer into a surrogate hybrid orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 26: 32-42.

S.K. Wasser, A.D.L. Vellosa, M. Rodden. 1995. Using fecal steroids to evaluate reproductive function in female maned wolves. Journal of Wildlife Management. 59: 889-894.

S.K. Wasser 1995. Costs of conception in baboons. Nature 376: 219-220.

L.M. Wasser and S.K. Wasser. 1995. Environmental variation and developmental rate among free ranging yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus). American Journal of Primatology 35: 15-30.

J.L. Brown, S.K. Wasser, D.E. Wildt and L.H. Graham. 1994. Comparative aspects of steroid hormone metabolism and ovarian activity in felids, measured non-invasively in feces Biology of Reproduction. 51: 776-786.

S.K. Wasser, S.L. Monfort, J. Southers and D.E. Wildt 1994. Excretion rates and metabolites of oestradiol and progesterone in baboon (Papio cynocephalus) faeces. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 101: 213-220.

S.K. Wasser 1994. Psychosocial stress and infertility: Cause or effect? Human Nature 5: 293-206.

S.L. Monfort, C.C. Schwartz and S.K. Wasser. 1993. Monitoring reproduction in moose using urinary and fecal steroid metabolites. Journal of Wildlife Management 57: 400-407.

S.K. Wasser 1993. The socioecology of interspecific associations among the forest monkeys of the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. In: J. Lovett and S.K. Wasser (Eds.), Biogeography and Ecology of the Forests of Eastern Africa. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

S.K. Wasser and J. Lovett. 1993. Introduction to the Biogeography and Ecology of the Forests of Eastern Africa. In: Lovett, J., and S.K. Wasser (Eds.). Biogeography and Ecology of the Forests of Eastern Africa. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

J. Lovett, and S.K. Wasser (Eds.). 1993. Biogeography and Ecology of the Forests of Eastern Africa. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

S.K. Wasser and G.W. Norton. 1993. Baboons adjust secondary sex ratio in response to predictors of sex-specific offspring survival. Behavior Ecology and Sociobiology 32: 273-281.

S.K. Wasser, R. Thomas, P.P. Nair, C. Guidry, J. Southers, J. Lucas, D.E. Wildt and S.L. Monfort. 1993. Effects of dietary fiber on faecal steroid measurements. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 97: 569-574.

S.K. Wasser, G. Sewall and M.R. Soules. 1993. Psychosocial stress as a cause of infertility. Fertility and Sterility 59: 685-689.

R.J. Rhine, G.W. Norton, J. Rogers and S.K. Wasser. 1992. Secondary sex ratio and maternal dominance rank among wild yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) of Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. American Journal of Primatology 27:261-274.

S.K. Wasser 1992. Review of The Female Animal. By: I. Elia, New York, Henry Holt and Co., American Scientist.

S.K. Wasser 1991. Review of Almost Human. By: S.C. Strum, New York, W.W. Norton, Quarterly Review of Biology 66: 520-521.

S.K. Wasser, S.L. Monfort, S.L. and D.E. Wildt. 1991. Rapid extraction of faecal steroids for measurement of reproductive cyclicity and early pregnancy in free-ranging yellow baboons. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 92: 415-423.

S.K. Wasser 1990. Infertility, abortion, and biotechnology: When its not nice to fool mother nature. Human Nature 1: 3-25.

S.K. Wasser, L. Risler, and R.A. Steiner. 1988. Excreted steroids in primate feces over the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Biology of Reproduction 39: 862-872.

R.J. Rhine, S.K. Wasser, and G.W. Norton. 1988. An eight year study of social and ecological correlates of mortality among immature baboons of Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. American Journal of Primatology 16(3): 199-212.

S.K. Wasser, and A.K. Starling. 1988. Proximate and ultimate causation of reproductive suppression among female yellow baboons at Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. American Journal of Primatology 16(2): 97-122.

L. Risler, S.K. Wasser, and G.P. Sackett. 1987. Measurement of excreted steroids in Macaca nemestrina. American Journal of Primatology 12: 91-100.

S.K. Wasser 1987. The value and problem of wildlife conservation in Tanzania. Primate Conservation 8: 167-168.

S.K. Wasser, and A.K. Starling. 1986. Reproductive competition among female yellow baboons. In: J.G. Else and P.C. Lee (Eds.), Ontogeny, Cognition, and Social Behaviour of Primates, Cambridge University Press, pp. 343-354.

S.K. Wasser, L. Risler, L.M. Wasser. 1986. Use of techniques to extract steroid hormones from primate feces. Primate Report. 14: 194-195.

S.K. Wasser, and D.Y. Isenberg. 1986. Reproductive failure among women: Pathology or adaptation? Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology 5: 153-175.

S.K. Wasser. 1986. Review of Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives. By: G. Hausfater and S.B. Hrdy (Eds.), Aldine , NY (1984). Animal Behaviour, 34: 623-624.

S.K. Wasser. 1985. Current conservation status of the Mwanihana Rain Forest, Uzungwa Mountains, Sanje, Tanzania. Primate Conservation, 6: 34.

S.K. Wasser. 1984. Review of Harems and Other Horrors. By A.I. Dagg, Otter Press, Montreal (1983). Animal Behaviour, 32(4): 953.

S.K. Wasser, and Barash, D.P. 1983. Reproductive suppression among female mammals: implications for biomedicine and sexual selection theory. The Quarterly Review of Biology 58(4): 513-538.

S.K. Wasser, and M.L. Waterhouse. 1983. The establishment and maintenance of sex biases. In: S.K. Wasser (Ed.) Social Behavior of Female Vertebrates, NY, Academic Press.

S.K. Wasser. 1983. Reproductive competition and cooperation among female yellow baboons. In: S.K. Wasser (Ed.) Social Behavior of Female Vertebrates, New York , Academic Press.

S.K. Wasser (Ed.). 1983. Social Behavior of Female Vertebrates, New York, Academic Press.

S.K. Wasser. 1982. Review of Beyond Sociobiology. By: J.D. Baldwin and J.O. Baldwin, New York, Elsevier (1981). Human Ecology, 13: 281-2

S.K. Wasser. 1982. Reciprocity and the trade-off between associate quality and relatedness. American Naturalist 117: 911-920.

S.K. Wasser, and D.P. Barash. 1981. The “selfish” allomother. Ethology and Sociobiology 2: 91-93.

S.K. Wasser. 1978. Structure and function of play in the tiger. Carnivore 1(3): 27-40.